The field of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is a very broad, interdisciplinary field that plays a critical role in assuring that structural components and systems perform their function in a reliable and cost effective fashion. NDT technicians and engineers define and implement tests that locate and characterize material conditions and flaws that might otherwise cause planes to crash, reactors to fail, trains to derail, pipelines to burst, and a variety of less visible, but equally troubling events. These tests are performed in a manner that does not affect the future usefulness of the object or material. In other words, NDT allows parts and material to be inspected and measured without damaging them. Because it allows inspection without interfering with a product’s final use, NDT provides an excellent balance between quality control and cost-effectiveness. Generally speaking, NDT applies to industrial inspections. The technologies that are used in NDT are similar to those used in the medical industry, but nonliving objects are the subjects of the inspections.
What is NDE?
Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is a term that is often used interchangeably with NDT. However, technically, NDE is used to describe measurements that are more quantitative in nature. For example, an NDE method would not only locate a defect, but it would also be used to measure something about that defect such as its size, shape, and orientation. NDE may be used to determine material properties, such as fracture toughness, formability, and other physical characteristics.
Some NDT/NDE Technologies:
Many people are already familiar with some of the technologies that are used in NDT and NDE from their uses in the medical industry. Most people have also had an X-ray taken and many mothers have had ultrasound used by doctors to give their baby a checkup while still in the womb. X-rays and ultrasound are only a few of the technologies used in the field of NDT/NDE. The number of inspection methods seems to grow daily, but a quick summary of the most commonly used methods is provided below.
Visual and Optical Testing (VT)
The most basic NDT method is visual examination. Visual examiners follow procedures that range from simply looking at a part to see if surface imperfections are visible, to using computer controlled camera systems to automatically recognize and measure features of a component.